U.S. female casualties of WWI.

If I had to swim to get there I would go to France to serve the soldiers.

—Winona Caroline Martin, YMCA worker

A common cause of death for the U.S. women who passed away during their World War I service was influenza or its complications (such as pneumonia or meningitis). There were some, however, who were killed:

Edith Ayers and Helen Burnett Wood, army nurses from the Chicago area. Killed on 20 May 1917 en route to France by a projectile when their ship, the USS Mongolia, was conducting target practice (read an eyewitness account by their fellow nurse, Laura Huckleberry). Resulted in a congressional inquiry.

Winona Caroline Martin (b. 1882), YMCA canteen worker. A Long Island librarian who had worked industriously to be sent abroad with the YMCA, Martin was being treated for scarlet fever at Paris’ Claude Bernard Hospital. In a 11 Mar. 1918 German air raid on the hospital, Martin was killed. She is considered the first American woman to die in the war due to enemy action. As noted in this report in the Salt Lake Herald, Martin had declared, “I would go just the same if I knew the boat I went on would be torpedoed,” and provided an account of an earlier air raid on the hospital. Sadly, this marked the third death in the family for Martin’s physician brother, Captain Arthur Chalmers Martin, as he had previously lost his parents. The women’s auxiliary of the J. Franklin Bell VFW post in Rockville Centre, NY, was named in his sister’s honor in 1921.

Marion G. Crandell (b. 1872), Iowa-born YMCA canteen worker educated at the Sorbonne. Killed on 27 Mar. 1918 by an enemy shell in Ste. Menehould, France.

Ruth Landon (b. 1888), Red Cross worker from New York and a great-niece of Vice President Levi P. Morton. Killed by a German shell on 29 Mar. 1918 in St. Gervais Church in Paris. As this account from the Evening Star reports, her mother and sister also died in the attack.

WinonaMartin

Winona Caroline Martin, from her 1918 passport application

Crandall

Marion G. Crandell, from her 1918 passport application

RuthLandon

Ruth Landon, from her 1916 passport application

Velona Pilcher: WWI worker, playwright of “female Journey’s End “

Later, when the camp was asleep, I knew I should be able to hear the hammering of the barrage . . .
— Velona Pilcher, 1919

The blog on playwright, author, and screenwriter R. C. Sherriff (best known for his World War I play Journey’s End, 1928) discusses Sherriff’s acquaintance with Velona Bissell Pilcher (1894–1952), including a May 1929 letter from Pilcher to Sherriff that comments on Journey’s End and her play, The Searcher (1929), which has been described as a “female Journey’s End” in its depiction of a Red Cross worker assigned to track missing soldiers. The Searcher was produced at Yale University in March 1930 (with set design by future Tony winner Donald Oenslager) and at London’s Grafton Theatre in May 1930 (the Times of London reviewer called it “a pretentiously empty piece of expressionism”). Edmund Rubbra composed incidental music for the play, and Blair Hughes-Stanton created stark wood engravings for the published version of the play. In 2008 The Searcher was staged at London’s Greenwich Theatre.

Bissell

Image of Julia Bissell from the San Francisco Call, 7 Feb. 1892

Pilcher’s mother, Julia Velona Bissell, was born in Ohio, and her lawyer father, William Pilcher, was British; the couple married in San Francisco in November 1892. After her parents died, Pilcher was raised in the United States by her aunt, Elise Robinson Townsend. Her great-uncle, George Ellis Pugh, was a lawyer and US senator from Ohio; her cousin, Ada Chalfant Robinson, was an artist. Pilcher seems to have been a writer of early promise, because this issue of St. Nicholas magazine records her winning a $5 first prize in a writing competition at age 16. During World War I Pilcher was a member of the Stanford Women’s Relief Unit, working at the AEF hospital facility at Bazeilles-sur-Meuse. Following initial studies at Mills College, she graduated from Stanford in 1919 with a degree in English.

Pilcher also wrote frequently about the theater, and this 1927 article reported that she was a co-manager of London’s Gate Theatre with Peter Godfrey. This chapter by Charlotte Purkis covers Pilcher’s relationship with famed actress Ellen Terry. The Theatres Trust notes Pilcher’s involvement in establishing an experimental theater club in London’s Watergate Theatre in 1949 that featured two Marc Chagall paintings on the walls (which he donated to the Tate in Pilcher’s memory in 1953).

Further reading:
Velona Pilcher, “A Regular Day at a Red Cross Hut,Stanford Illustrated Review, Mar 1919

Velona Pilcher, “Men Worship Me” (poem about a pine tree), 1917

Charlotte Purkis, “The Mediation of Constructions of Pacifism in Journey’s End and The Searcher, two Contrasting Dramatic Memorials from the Late 1920s,” Journalism Studies 17 (2016), 502–16.